# Measurements / Metric System / Conversion

Below are a few tips & tricks which you might want to read through and review as you get started in your new field of Pastry Arts.

##### a.) Weights: measures mass of Ingredients, products; solids; liquids.

• US / Imperial: ounces (oz), pounds (Ibs)
• Metric: grams (g), kilograms (kg)
• Conversions:1 ounce = 28.4 grams
• 1 pound = 16 ounces = (16 x 28.4g) = 454 grams
• 1 kilogram = 1000 grams = (1000 / 454) = 2.2 pounds

b.) Volume: measures amount of space ingredient occupies; liquids; flour, sugar.

• US / Imperial: teaspoons (tsp), tablespoons (tbs), cups, fluid onces (fl.oz), quarts
• Metric: milliliters (ml), liters (L)
• Conversions:1 tsp = 5 ml
• 1 tbs = 3 tsp = 15 ml
• 1 fl.oz = 29.6 ml
• 1 cup = 8 fl.oz = (8 x 29.6 ml) = 237 ml (standard = 240 ml)

But of course it depends on the material measured, that’s why the margin of errors in scaling with cup measurements is potential to large

• 1 liter = 1000 ml
• 1 quart = 4 cups = (4 x 237) = 948 ml = 0.948 liter
• 1/4 cup = 4 tbs
• 1 quart = 2 pints
• 1 gallon = 4 quarts

c.) Temperature: measures heat.

• US: Fahrenheit (F)
• Metric: Celsius (C)

Conversions:

• C to F:F= (C x 1.8) + 32
• F to C:C= (F – 32) / 1.8
• Water freezes at 32F / 0C
• Water Boils at 212F / 100C